# Aerospace (Ae) Undergraduate Courses (2021-22)

Ae 100.
Research in Aerospace.
Units to be arranged in accordance with work accomplished:
.
Open to suitably qualified undergraduates and first-year graduate students under the direction of the staff. Credit is based on the satisfactory completion of a substantive research report, which must be approved by the Ae 100 adviser and by the option representative.

Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc.
Fluid Mechanics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: APh 17 or ME 11 abc, and ME 12 or equivalent, ACM 95/100 or equivalent (may be taken concurrently).
Fundamentals of fluid mechanics. Microscopic and macroscopic properties of liquids and gases; the continuum hypothesis; review of thermodynamics; general equations of motion; kinematics; stresses; constitutive relations; vorticity, circulation; Bernoulli's equation; potential flow; thin-airfoil theory; surface gravity waves; buoyancy-driven flows; rotating flows; viscous creeping flow; viscous boundary layers; introduction to stability and turbulence; quasi one-dimensional compressible flow; shock waves; unsteady compressible flow; and acoustics.
Instructors: Pullin, Austin, Colonius.

Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 abc.
Mechanics of Structures and Solids.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ME 12 abc.
Introduction to continuum mechanics: kinematics, balance laws, constitutive laws with an emphasis on solids. Static and dynamic stress analysis. Two- and three-dimensional theory of stressed elastic solids. Wave propagation. Analysis of rods, plates and shells with applications in a variety of fields. Variational theorems and approximate solutions. Elastic stability.
Instructors: Rosakis, Ravichandran.

Ae 103 ab.
Aerospace Control Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
second and third terms.
Prerequisites: CDS 110 (or equivalent), CDS 131 or permission of instructor.
Part a: Optimization-based design of control systems, including optimal control and receding horizon control. Introductory random processes and optimal estimation. Kalman filtering and nonlinear filtering methods for autonomous systems. Part b: Nonlinear control design for aerospace systems, flight dynamics, and attitude dynamics. Guidance, navigation, and control of autonomous aerospace systems.
Instructor: Murray.

Ae/APh 104 abc.
Experimental Methods.
9 units (3-0-6) first term; (0-6-3) second, third terms:
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 ab or equivalent (may be taken concurrently), Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent (may be taken concurrently).
Lectures on experiment design and implementation. Measurement methods, transducer fundamentals, instrumentation, optical systems, signal processing, noise theory, analog and digital electronic fundamentals, with data acquisition and processing systems. Experiments (second and third terms) in solid and fluid mechanics with emphasis on current research methods.
Instructor: McKeon.

Ae 105 abc.
Space Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6) first term, (2-4-3) second term, (0-8-1) third term:
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: ME 11 abc and ME 12 abc or equivalent.
Part a: Design of space missions based on astrodynamics. Topics include conic orbits with perturbations (J2, drag, and solar radiation pressure), Lambert's Theorem, periodic orbits and ground tracks, invariant manifolds, and the variational equation with mission applications to planetary flybys, constellation, formation flying, and low energy planetary capture and landing. Part b: Introduction to spacecraft systems and subsystems, mission design, rocket mechanics, launch vehicles, and space environments; spacecraft mechanical, structural, and thermal design; communication and power systems; preliminary discussion and setup for team project leading to system requirements review. Part c: Team project leading to preliminary design review and critical design review.
Instructors: Campagnola, Braun, Pellegrino.

CE/Ae/AM 108.
Computational Mechanics.
9 units (3-5-1):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/ME/CE 102 abc or Ae/GE/ME 160 ab, or instructor's permission.
Numerical methods and techniques for solving initial boundary value problems in continuum mechanics (from heat conduction to statics and dynamics of solids and structures). Finite difference methods, direct methods, variational methods, finite elements in small strains and at finite deformation for applications in structural mechanics and solid mechanics. Solution of the partial differential equations of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, and fluid mechanics. Transient and nonlinear problems. Computational aspects and development and use of finite element code. Not offered 2021–22.

Ae 115 ab.
Spacecraft Navigation.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: CDS 110 a.
This course will survey all aspects of modern spacecraft navigation, including astrodynamics, tracking systems for both low-Earth and deep-space applications (including the Global Positioning System and the Deep Space Network observables), and the statistical orbit determination problem (in both the batch and sequential Kalman filter implementations). The course will describe some of the scientific applications directly derived from precision orbital knowledge, such as planetary gravity field and topography modeling. Numerous examples drawn from actual missions as navigated at JPL will be discussed. Not offered 2021-2022.

APh/Ph/Ae 116.
Physics of Thermal and Mass Transport in Hydrodynamic Systems.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: ACM 95 or equivalent and APh/Ph 115 or equivalent.
Contemporary research in many areas of physics requires some knowledge of how momentum transport in fluids couples to diffusive phenomena driven by thermal or concentration gradients. This course will first examine processes driven purely by diffusion and progress toward description of systems governed by steady and unsteady convection-diffusion and reaction-diffusion. Topics will include Fickian dynamics, thermal transfer in Peltier devices, Lifshitz-Slyozov growth during phase separation, thermocouple measurements of oscillatory fields, reaction-diffusion phenomena in biophysical systems, buoyancy driven flows, and boundary layer formation. Students must have working knowledge of vector calculus, ODEs, PDEs, complex variables and basic tensor analysis. Advanced solution methods such as singular perturbation, Sturm-Liouville and Green's function analysis will be taught in class as needed. Not offered 2021-2022.
Instructor: Troian.

Ae/ME 118.
Classical Thermodynamics.
9 units (3-0-6):
first term.
Prerequisites: ME11abc, ME12abc, or equivalent.
Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics. Basic laws of thermodynamics, work and heat, entropy and available work, and thermal systems. Equations of state, compressibility functions, and the Law of Corresponding States. Thermodynamic potentials, phase equilibrium, phase transitions, and thermodynamic properties of solids, liquids, and gases. Examples will be drawn from fluid dynamics, solid mechanics, energy systems, and thermal-science applications.
Instructor: Dimotakis.

Ae/ME 120.
Combustion Fundamentals.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Recommended: ME 118 and 119 or equivalent.
The course will cover chemical equilibrium, chemical kinetics, combustion chemistry, transport phenomena, and the governing equations for multicomponent gas mixtures. Topics will be chosen from non-premixed and premixed flames, laminar and turbulent flames, combustion-generated pollutants, and numerical simulations of reacting flows. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ae 121 abc.
Space Propulsion.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Open to all graduate students and to seniors with instructor's permission.
Ae 121 is designed to introduce the fundamentals of chemical, electric and advanced propulsion technologies. The course focuses on the thermochemistry and aerodynamics of chemical and electrothermal propulsion systems, the physics of ionized gases and electrostatic and electromagnetic processes in electric thrusters. These analyses provide the opportunity to introduce the basic concepts of non-equilibrium gas dynamics and kinetic theory. Specific technologies such as launch vehicle rocket engines, monopropellant engines, arcjets, ion thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic engines and Hall thrusters will be discussed. Ae 121 also provides an introduction to advanced propulsion concepts such as solar sails and antimatter rockets.
Instructor: Polk.

Ae 150 abc.
Aerospace Engineering Seminar.
1 unit:
first, second, third terms.
Speakers from campus and outside research and manufacturing organizations discuss current problems and advances in aerospace engineering. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor: Austin.

EE/Ae 157 ab.
Introduction to the Physics of Remote Sensing.
9 units (3-0-6):
second, third terms.
Prerequisites: Ph 2 or equivalent.
An overview of the physics behind space remote sensing instruments. Topics include the interaction of electromagnetic waves with natural surfaces, including scattering of microwaves, microwave and thermal emission from atmospheres and surfaces, and spectral reflection from natural surfaces and atmospheres in the near-infrared and visible regions of the spectrum. The class also discusses the design of modern space sensors and associated technology, including sensor design, new observation techniques, ongoing developments, and data interpretation. Examples of applications and instrumentation in geology, planetology, oceanography, astronomy, and atmospheric research.
Instructor: Rosen.

Ae 159.
Optical Engineering.
9 units (3-0-6):
third term.
Prerequisites: Ph 2, EE/Ae 157, or equivalent; APh 23 desirable.
This class covers both the fundamentals of optical engineering and the development of space optical systems. Emphasis is on the design and engineering of optical, UV and IR systems for scientific remote sensing and imaging applications. Material covered is: first order optics to find the location, size and orientation of an image; geometrical aberration theory balancing tolerancing optical systems; transmittance, Etendu vignetting; radiative transfer; scalar vector wave propagation-physical optics; scalar diffraction image formation coherence; interferometry for the measurement of optical surfaces astronomy; optical metrology wavefront sensing control (A/O); segmented and sparse aperture telescopes; and design topics in coronagraphy, Fourier transform spectrometers, grating spectrometers, and large aperture telescopes. Space optics issues discussed will be segmented sparse aperture telescopes, radiation damage to glass, thermal and UV contamination. Not offered 2021-2022.

Ae/Ge/ME 160 ab.
Continuum Mechanics of Fluids and Solids.
9 units (3-0-6):
first, second terms.
Elements of Cartesian tensors. Configurations and motions of a body. Kinematics-study of deformations, rotations and stretches, polar decomposition. Lagrangian and Eulerian strain velocity and spin tensor fields. Irrotational motions, rigid motions. Kinetics-balance laws. Linear and angular momentum, force, traction stress. Cauchy's theorem, properties of Cauchy's stress. Equations of motion, equilibrium equations. Power theorem, nominal (Piola-Kirchoff) stress. Thermodynamics of bodies. Internal energy, heat flux, heat supply. Laws of thermodynamics, notions of entropy, absolute temperature. Entropy inequality (Clausius-Duhem). Examples of special classes of constitutive laws for materials without memory. Objective rates, corotational, convected rates. Principles of materials frame indifference. Examples: the isotropic Navier-Stokes fluid, the isotropic thermoelastic solid. Basics of finite differences, finite elements, and boundary integral methods, and their applications to continuum mechanics problems illustrating a variety of classes of constitutive laws.
Instructors: Rosakis, Lapusta.

Ae/CE 165 ab.
Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures.
9 units (2-2-5):
first, second terms.
Prerequisites: Ae/AM/CE/ME 102 a.
Introduction and fabrication technology, elastic deformation of composites, stiffness bounds, on- and off-axis elastic constants for a lamina, elastic deformation of multidirectional laminates (lamination theory, ABD matrix), effective hygrothermal properties, mechanisms of yield and failure for a laminate, strength of a single ply, failure models, splitting and delamination. Experimental methods for characterization and testing of composite materials. Design criteria, application of design methods to select a suitable laminate using composite design software, hand layup of a simple laminate and measurement of its stiffness and thermoelastic coefficients. Not offered 2021-2022

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